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Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Elizabeth E Marchani - liz. Near the junction of three major continents, the Caucasus region has been an important thoroughfare for human migration. While the Caucasus Mountains have diverted human traffic to the few lowland regions that provide a Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics from north to south between the Caspian and Black Seas, highland populations have been isolated by their remote geographic location and their practice of patrilocal endogamy. We investigate how these cultural and historical differences between highland and lowland populations have affected patterns of genetic diversity.
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Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics test 1 whether the highland practice of patrilocal endogamy has generated sex-specific population relationships, and 2 whether the history of migration and military conquest associated with the lowland populations has left Central Asian genes in the Caucasus, by comparing genetic diversity and pairwise population relationships between Daghestani populations and reference populations throughout Europe and Asia for autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers. We found that the highland Daghestani populations had contrasting histories for the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome data sets. Y-chromosomal haplogroup diversity was reduced among highland Daghestani populations when compared to other populations and to highland Daghestani mitochondrial DNA haplogroup diversity.
Lowland Daghestani populations showed Turkish and Central Asian affinities for both mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data sets. Autosomal population histories are strongly correlated to the pattern observed for the mitochondrial DNA data set, while the correlation between the mitochondrial DNA and Y- chromosome distance matrices was weak and not significant. The reduced Y-chromosomal diversity exhibited by highland Daghestani populations is consistent with genetic drift caused by patrilocal endogamy.
Mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal phylogeographic comparisons indicate a common Near Eastern origin of highland populations. Lowland Daghestani populations show varying influence from Near Eastern and Central Asian populations. BMC Genetics9: The region as a whole has served as a gateway between continents, with waves of human migration leaving rich cultural Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics linguistic diversity in their wake [1,2]. The Caucasus Mountains have shaped the routes of migrating populations and mil- itary invasions, diverting these travellers away from the remote highlands and into the more easily accessible low- lands. Differences between highland and lowland popula- tions are exaggerated by the marriage practices of highland populations: We have identified five populations from Daghestan that have been influenced by both physical and cultural barri- ers to gene flow.
Three are highland isolates, while two lowland populations represent admixed groups influ- enced by Turkic and Mongolian migrants. We investigate whether the geographic barrier of altitude, the cultural barrier of patrilocal endogamy, or the introduction of migrants from a great distance have left detectable pat- terns in the genetic diversity of these populations.
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Specif- ically, we ask 1 whether geographic isolation and patrilocal endogamy Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics caused more genetic drift in highland than lowland populations, and 2 whether low- land populations show evidence of admixture from Turkic and Mongolian migrants. We compare measures of haplogroup diversity and pairwise distance for the mtDNA and NRY markers, then compare these to genetic distances from the autosomal data, look- ing for evidence of genetic drift and shared origins. Our results demonstrate that the cultural practice of patrilocal- ity and historic population movements have shaped genetic variation in these Caucasus populations. They each speak different languages belonging to the Northeast Caucasian language family.
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The Avars and Dar- gins have traditionally been agriculturalists and pastoral- ists, while the Kubachi have specialized in jewelry making . These highland populations are isolated due to their remote location, their linguistic variation, and their prac- tice of strict patrilocal endogamy [3,4].
This marriage practice controls the inheritance of property and restricts male gene flow . These populations are thought to be indigenous to the region but, like other native peoples of the Caucasus region, their exact origins are unclear . Previous genetic studies have revealed that populations within the Caucasus region do not share the genetic vari- ation believed by some researchers to be a signature of the Neolithic expansion through Europe, leading some to infer that these populations are remnants of a more ancient Eurasian population [3,7,8]. Others suggest that the Caucasus region is instead inhabited by a collection of peoples who represent those who have travelled through or invaded the region in the historic past [4,9,10]. The Nogai and Kumiks of the Daghestani lowlands have a history of admixture. These populations speak different languages belonging to the Kipchak division of the Turkic language family and are more exogamous than the high- land populations [11,12].
The Kumik population Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics sents a mixture of native peoples of the Caucasus with Turkic migrants from the 4th to the 15th centuries and may be descended from the Kipchaks, an ancient Turkic popu- lation [10,12]. The Kumiks currently practice a flexible form of virilocality and frequently exchange mates with other villages. The Nogai are descended from the Nogai khanate of the Mongol empire, established in the 12th cen- tury, which arrived in Daghestan in the 13th and 14th cen- turies [5,11].
Although administrated by Mongolians, this khanate was peopled by many native Caucasian ethnic groups [11,12], suggesting that the Nogai are an admixed population. GIGABYTE motherboards feature a 3x USB power boost, delivering greater compatibility and extra power for USB devices. The GA-M68MT-S2P, based on NVIDIA GeForce/ nForcea chipset and supports new Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics of 45nm AMD AM3 Phenom II/ AthlonII processors, integrated DirectX Gateway T-68 AMD M74-M Graphics Missing: Gateway T- M Specifications and benchmarks of the ATI Mobility Radeon HD XT This is a DirectX 10 graphic card from ATI and direct competitor to the Codename, M74 .
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